Lesser Black-backed Gull- Kleine Mantelmeeuw (graellsii & intermedius)

(last update: 30 April 2014)

Home

LBBG rings

lbbg 1cy May
lbbg 1cy June
lbbg 1cy July
lbbg 1cy August
lbbg 1cy September
lbbg 1cy October
lbbg 1cy Nov - Dec

lbbg 2cy Jan-Febr
lbbg 2cy Mar-April
lbbg 2cy May
lbbg 2cy June
lbbg 2cy July
lbbg 2cy August
lbbg 2cy September
lbbg 2cy October
lbbg 2cy Nov - Dec

lbbg 3cy Jan-April
lbbg 3cy May
lbbg 3cy June
lbbg 3cy July
lbbg 3cy August
lbbg 3cy September
lbbg 3cy October
lbbg 3cy Nov - Dec

lbbg sub-ad Jan-April
lbbg sub-ad May
lbbg sub-ad June
lbbg sub-ad July
lbbg sub-ad Aug
lbbg sub-ad Sept
lbbg sub-ad Oct
lbbg sub-ad Nov - Dec

lbbg ad January
lbbg adult February
lbbg adult Mar-April
lbbg adult May
lbbg adult June
lbbg adult July
lbbg ad August
lbbg ad September
lbbg ad October
lbbg ad Nov - Dec

third calendar year: September

 

In most typical graellsii LBBG nearly all feathers are being replaced now. Birds require fresh plumage with adult-like upper-parts and under-parts. On average, coverts and tertials are moulted into third generation feathers and mantle and scapulars become fourth (even fifth) generation, after the moult to third winter plumage.

From head to toe you can see the following changes:

  • The bill will acquire a bill-band due to the hormonal changes (third winter bill coloration). There is quite some variation: some birds will get a blackish base to the bill, while others only get a sharply defined band across the gonys. The average birds (79 %) show an ”adult” bill with a nice broad band over the upper and lower mandible. The bill colours become paler, more lemon and orange. The legs turn pale pinkish yellow or off-yellow.
  • The head becomes heavily streaked as freshly moulted streaked feathers grow in, replacing the white old, worn feathers. Some birds acquire an almost greyish head.
  • The under-parts are also moulted. Nearly 100% of the birds show streaked under-parts, some having streaking in the hind-neck only.
  • Most 3cy LBBG finish the moult of mantle and scapulars (completed by mid September). The upper-parts resemble adults now (being fourth or even fifth generation).
  • Tertials exist of newly moulted 3rd generation feathers. They are moulted downwards, giving a contrast between the new upper tertials and the old lower tertials (with the central tertials missing). The difference is obvious with these new tertials adult-grey with a white top, contrary the blackish centred old tertials with black markings in the tip. Some birds show a more blackish centre on new 3rd generation tertials. If so, it's prominent in tertials #3-6. At the end of September almost all 3cy have six new tertials, while some birds are still moulting the final tertials.
  • The wing-coverts have been moulted all to third generation, but some 3cy LBBG have a moult-gap in the coverts or still have some old coverts. 95 % follows the ordinary moult sequence: first the inner 3-4 followed by the outermost feathers (which are replaced inwards). Only 5% follows a random strategy and leave a few feathers in the greater coverts not replaced. The under-wing coverts are replaced by adult-like white feathers in a sequence similar to the upper-wing.
  • The primaries are moulted outwards and the primary-score at the end of September averages over 40 (n = 153) with p6 full-grown on all bird, as shown in the table below. The third generation primaries are very adult-like but p10 often shows an obvious smaller mirror
  • The secondaries are shed inwards, starting next to the primaries. In adults secondary moult starts from the moment p6 is half way to fully grown. In 3cy, only a few birds show secondary moult in September. The 3cy moult of secondaries is not related to moult of primaries. As shown in the bottom table, birds with fully grown p8 or even p9 can still show complete old second generation secondaries. Such birds were found as late as October 10 2001.
  • The tail is new, third generation in most cases (90%), but still in active moult in some birds (5%) or complete third generation, white or with very restricted black markings (5%). Old worn rectrices seen in September, without any black markings, are probably third generation as well, moulted early in spring. Variation within 3cy and 4cy birds is huge and advanced 3cy can be aged wrongly as delayed 4cy birds.

Tables 3cy LBBG in September

Remaining primaries Full-grown primaries
1/9 3/9 11/9 16/9 17/9 24/9 28/9   1/9 3/9 11/9 16/9 17/9 24/9 28/9
0 1 5 1 6 5 13 85 p10              
p10   5 1 6 3 11 22 p9           3 16
p9 6 5   5 3 8 7 p8 1 2   4 1 11 63
p8 3 2   1 2 4 2 p7 2 9 2 10 8 10 30
p7 2         1   p6 4 4   4 4 13 7
                p5 3 2          
                p4 2            
lesser coverts greater coverts
1/9 3/9 11/9 16/9 17/9 24/9     1/9 3/9 11/9 16/9 17/9 24/9  
0               0 1            
1 2 2           1   4          
2 1 2           2 3 1   1      
3 3 4           3 2 2   1      
4 4 3 1 4 2 3   4 2 4   3 2 1  
5 2 6 1 14 11 34   5 4 6 2 13 11 36  
New Tertials
  1/9 3/9 11/9 16/9 17/9 24/9  
0              
1   1          
2              
3 1 2          
4 4 3   2      
5 3 3   2   2  
6 4 8 2 14 13 35  
n: 12 17 2 18 13 37  

Coverts score:  0 = all coverts old, 1 = 25% new, 2 = 50% new, 3 = 75% new, 4 = 99% new, 5 = 100% new  

primary moult score in 22 3cy LBBG, Boulogne-sur-Mer, NW France, September 21 2002.

  p8 old p9 old p10 old  no old
p8 new       4
p7 new   3 2 9
p6 new 1 2    
p5 new 1      

3cy LBBG: Relation between secondary moult, new primaries and date.

  all S old outer miss, inner old outer grow, inner miss outer new, inner grow all S new S not seen
p4 4,2          
p5 6,3   1      
p6 1,3,2 5,1,2,2 3,6 4   2,1
p7 1,1 1,2,1 1,1,1,2,2 3 4,2,1,3,2 1,2
p8     1 2 1,2,1,6 2
p9   1     2  
p10         1  

all S old: all secondaries old, i.e. still 2nd generation.
outer miss, inner old: outer secondaries shed (S1-S9), while inners are still old (S10~S18).
outer grow, inner miss: S1-S9 are growing, while S10~S18 are shed.
outer new, inner grow: S1-S9 are new 3rd generation, S10~S18 are growing.
all S new: all secondaries are new 3rd generation.
S not seen: secondary moult stage not certain.
p4,...p10: most recent moulted full-grown primary.

date: 28/08/2001, 01/09/2001, 11/09/2001, 16/09/2001, 17/09/2001, 24/09/2001


UK: LBBG 3cy: graellsii
2cy Dutch LBBG in February. (79773 bytes)LBBG 3cy 3XF September 30 2006, Madrid, Spain. Picture: Delfín González.
France: LBBG 3cy: graellsii
Lesser Black-backed Gull 3cy 746N September 02 2010, Boulogne sur mer, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.

Belgium: LBBG 3cy:
"Dutch intergrade" graellsii

2cy Dutch LBBG in February. (79773 bytes)LBBG 3cy DZAN September 08 & 21 2008, Madrid, Spain. Picture: Delfín González.
3cy graellsii in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (82981 bytes)LBBG HZAB 3cy September 23 2010, Westkapelle, the Netherlands.

Netherlands: LBBG 3cy:
"Dutch intergrade" graellsii

ad LBBG in winter, ringed in the Netherlands. (65647 bytes)LBBG 3cy 1E September 30 2012, Landfill VRSU de Colmenar Viejo, Madrid, Spain. Picture: Delfín González.
juvenile LBBG, ringed in the Netherlands. LBBG 3cy 13 September 19 2010, Madrid, Spain. Photo by Delfín González. Seen many times.
3cy graellsii in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (82981 bytes)LBBG A18 3cy September 18 2004, IJmuiden, the Netherlands.
6318.jpg (80225 bytes)LBBG NLA ? 3cy September 24 2001, IJmuiden, the Netherlands.

N Germany LBBG 3cy: transition graellsii - intermedius
2cy intermedius in October, ringed in Norway. (97235 bytes)LBBG 3cy H.096 September - October 2009, Westkapelle, the Netherlands.
2cy intermedius in October, ringed in Norway. (97235 bytes)LBBG 3cy H.328 September - October 2010, Westkapelle, the Netherlands.

Denmark LBBG 3cy: intermedius
2cy intermedius in October, ringed in Norway. (97235 bytes)LBBG 3cy V3PJ September 24 2010, Westkapelle, the Netherlands.

Norway LBBG 3cy: intermedius
E219a011101.jpg (68410 bytes)LBBG JU89 September 08-14 2008, Madrid, Spain. Photo by Delfín González.
juvenile LBBG in September, ringed in Norway. (73485 bytes)LBBG intermedius JZZ7 2cy-3cy-4cy, 2010-2012. Pictures Christian Pedersen, Maarten van Kleinwee & Theo Muusse.
3cy LBBG intermedius in September, ringed in Norway. (64191 bytes)LBBG J1E7 3cy September 01 2003, Naaktstrand, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands.
adult LBBG intermedius in September, ringed in Norway. (81404 bytes)LBBG NOS4217224 3cy September 02 2003, Westkapelle, the Netherlands. Arrested moult at P7.

Sweden: LBBG 3cy: intermedius
8790svs8103331.jpg (92989 bytes)LBBG SVS8103331 3cy September 02 2003, Westkapelle, the Netherlands.

unringed LBBG 3cy
5041cy3.jpg (75184 bytes)LBBG 3cy, September 22 2002, Le Portel, France.
4576cy3.jpg (71782 bytes)LBBG 3cy September 16 2002, Scheveningen, the Netherlands.
5993.jpg (87308 bytes)LBBG 3cy September 02 2001, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands.
6484.jpg (69490 bytes)LBBG 3cy September 30 2001, Le Portel, France.
6218.jpg (78695 bytes)LBBG 3cy September 17 2001, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands.
4959cy3.jpg (55496 bytes)LBBG 3cy September 22 2002, Le Portel, France.
6300.jpg (76678 bytes)LBBG 3cy / sub-adult September 24 2001, IJmuiden, the Netherlands.