Lesser Black-backed Gull- Kleine Mantelmeeuw (graellsii & intermedius)

(last update: 17-1-2011)

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adult: May


Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, May 09 2014, Katwijk, the Netherlands. Classic graellsii type bird. Complete moult not started: P1-P10 old.

Many photographs were taken at two colonies at the Maasvlakte (51'56 N 04'00 E). The Maasvlakte, situated along the Dutch North Sea coast near Rotterdam, is a large harbour complex (see the maps in the distribution section). The vacant sites, not occupied by industrial companies, accommodate large colonies of Lesser Black-backed Gulls (LBBG) and Herring Gulls (HG).

Mixed breeding

Dutch LBBG colonies are probably a result of colonization by both intermedius (from Scandinavia) and graellsii (from Great-Britain) during the 1930s, and are often referred to as 'Dutch intergrades'. It is not unlikely that "Herring Gull blood" is involved as well, as mixed breeding between HG and LBBG was not uncommon during the early colonization period (yet, for the last decades these mixed pairs are not seen). From the 1990's, mixed pairs with michahellis can be found annually.

Nowadays ringed adults from several foreign colonies can be found within the Maasvlakte colony. Mixed breeding does occur with Yellow-legged Gulls (about 10 mixed pairs annually), resulting in mixed characteristics and therefore making identification in some birds pretty hard. An example of such a mixed couple can be found on this page, the birds were photographed in April and May 2002. A male Lesser Black-backed Gull has paired with a female Yellow-legged Gull. Some birds have the upper-parts a shade of grey paler than normally seen in LBBG, and when this is combined with other features as an orange orbital ring, one may expect some Herring Gull influences.

Location of breeding

As can be seen in the images, adult birds are very strict in choosing a place in the colony. Research in Herring Gulls (in the Netherlands by H. Vercruijsse) revealed that almost all sub-adult Herring Gulls visited the colony of birth at least once in their life to investigate the possibilities for nesting in later years. In their third year, Herring Gulls (but Lesser Black-backed Gulls as well) can be found in the colonies on an extensive scale. Every colony holds at least a few immature birds, any time in the breeding season. It's not said that they will breed there in later years, they might just be on investigation to find out whether it will be a profitable decision. Once the breeding site is chosen, adults are very strict in returning to this site in future.

Primary Moult Scores in adult LBBG:

Year 2003 we did some preliminary research on primary moult scores in adult LBBG. In total, we scored about 1400 birds from early April to mid October. This research will be used to do some more fundamental research in tear 2003-2004. First results for May can be read from the tables below. Most birds had P1 still present, but from late May onwards, adult LBBG increasingly shed P1. The last survey is from Zeebrugge, May 30 with most advanced bird missing P1 and P2 (score 8, in metal ringed L-62174 and orange EX22, ringed July 03 1997, now in 7cy). Nevertheless we did see several adult LBBG in the colony, which had P1 shed by April 19. Some notes: the scorse on April 05 2003 were done at Naaktstrand, on preening, bathing and arriving birds, through 20x-60x telescopes. Active moult would be noticed, but to detect arrested moult in such circumstances is pretty difficult. Next year, we try to start our surveys with catching birds and examine the exact primary stage in the inner primaries by taking photographs.


Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, May 09 2014, Katwijk, the Netherlands. Classic graellsii type bird. Complete moult started: P1 growing, P2-P10 old.

Tables & Graph

starting date: 30 Apr   07 May   14 May   21 May   28 May   04 Jun
week no: 18 19 20 21 22 23
REM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 5 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 6 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 7 0 0 1 0 0 0
REM 8 15 11 21 9 5 3
REM 9 40 34 39 15 12 6
REM 10 466 216 194 85 102 17
           
n = 521 261 255 109 119 26
average P = 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.7 9.8 9.5
95% CID = 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.12 0.09 0.29
inverse = 1.96 1.97 1.97 1.98 1.98 2.06
Variantie (s2) = 0.17 0.25 0.41 0.38 0.24 0.50
SD (s) = 0.42 0.50 0.64 0.62 0.49 0.71
SE (sx) = 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.14
             
% class:            
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 3 4 8 8 4 12
9 8 13 15 14 10 23
10 89 83 76 78 86 65
             
  % control: 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table above, data for the Netherlands (2000-2010), results for May (aggregated week): number of remaining old primaries in adults.
REM10 = 10 primaries still old (hence, complete moult not started yet). First signs of complete moult commencement in WEEK 18 (starting 30 April).

Above: Scatter Plot for PMS in adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Number of remaining old primaries throughout the year (arrested moult excluded). Sample size is 6.171 birds.

Above: Scatter Plot for PMS in adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Number of remaining old primaries for May (arrested moult excluded). Sample size for this graph is 1291 ringed birds.

starting date:

30 Apr

07 May

14 May

21 May

04 Jun

week no:

18

19

20

21

23

NEW 0

457

205

207

92

8

NEW P1

10

3

10

4

0

NEW P2

3

1

2

0

0

NEW P3

0

0

0

0

0

NEW P4

0

0

0

0

0

NEW P5

0

0

0

0

0

NEW P6

0

0

0

0

0

NEW P7

0

0

0

0

0

NEW P8

 

0

0

0

0

NEW P9

 

 

0

0

0

NEW P10

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

n =

470

209

219

96

8

average NEW P =

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

95% CID =

0.02

0.02

0.04

0.04

0.00

inverse  =

1.97

1.97

1.97

1.99

2.36

Variantie (s2) =

0.05

0.03

0.08

0.04

0.00

SD (s) =

0.21

0.18

0.28

0.20

0.00

SE (sx) =

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

% class

 

 

 

 

 

0

97

98

95

96

100

1

2

1

5

4

0

2

1

0

1

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

0

0

0

0

6

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

0

0

9

0

0

0

0

0

10

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

% control:

100

100

100

100

100

Table above, data for the Netherlands (2000-2010), results for May (aggregated week): number of new, fully grown primaries in adults.
NEW0 = no new primaries visible (arrested moult excluded in this analysis). So either P1 still old, or P1 dropped, but the very tip still not visible.
NEW1 = P1 longest new primary. Range between "at least the tip of P1 is visible" until "tip of P2 still shorter than P1".
NEW2 = P2 longest new primary. NEW3 = etc.

Above: Scatter Plot for PMS in adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls throughout the year. Longest new primary is classified "fully grown". Sample size is 2.969 birds. Birds scored on NEW primaries (arrested moult excluded).

Above: Scatter Plot for PMS in adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Scoring on longest new primary, which is classified "fully grown" for May (arrested moult excluded). Sample size for this graph is 1002 ringed birds.

The earliest date for birds with missing primaries is 30 April 2006, which is not the earliest day in our complete sample. We scored 98 Lesser Black-backed Gulls prior to that date, some already in February. As can be expected, none of these was in primary moult, and this group was excluded in our further analysis as it will only result in a misfit for the onset of moult, using linear regression statistics.

The last scoring days were in November, with a larger sample (133 adults) on 04 November 2010. From that date we have the last birds with retaining old primaries (13 birds with 1, 2 or even 3 old primaries; 120 birds with no old primaries left). From other days in November, only 10 birds were scored (all ringed adults). They all had no old primaries left.

The first tine a new primary (P1) was visible, was on 08 May 2006. Prior to this date, birds were scored missing inner primaries, but the very tip was still not visible (and therefore not scored). As soon as the tip of P1 was visible, this was automatically scored "fully grown" For the other primaries to be scored fully grown, they had to exceed the previous primary in length (so P2 fully grown, only from when it is longer than P1).

Peter Stewart presents onset of primary moult by scores for caught adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls in the Severn Estuary, U.K., repeated in the table below. To read his results, see this PDF file.  

Table: the number of old remaining primaries present. Compare PMS of adult graellsii at half monthly intervals. Data from the Severn Estuary Gull Group by Peter Stewart: The primary moult of the Lesser Black-backed Gull (special publication No 1).

 

Netherlands

Severn Estuary U.K.

 

PMS range

N:

Average PMS

PMS range

N:

Average PMS

1-15 apr

10

49

10

8-10

216

9,9

16-30 apr

10

47

10

10

197

10,0

1-15 may

8-10

849

9,8

8-10

167

9,9

16-31 may

7-10

380

9,7

7-10

76

9,5

1-15 jun

8-10

104

9,6

7-10

33

8,6

16-30 jun
7-10 253 9,7 6-10 65 8,2
1-15 jul
6-10 605 9,2 5-10 176 7,4

LINEAR REGRESSION

Onset of primary moult can best be illustrated by a sinusoid for the first few weeks and last weeks, but there appears to be linear dependency over much of the central moult period.

LINEAR REGRESSION FOR OLD REMAINING PRIMARIES

Complete sample: Linear regression (n = 6171, R2= 0.820, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = -0,381* WEEK + 17,967

Ringed adults: Linear regression (n = 2069, R2= 0.800, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = -0,325* WEEK + 16,270

Unringed adult: Linear regression (n = 4102, R2= 0.779, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = -0,513* WEEK + 23,031

LINEAR REGRESSION FOR NEW FULLY GROWN PRIMARIES

Complete sample: Linear regression (n = 2969, R2= 0.930, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = 0,302* WEEK - 5,933

Ringed adults: Linear regression (n = 1209, R2= 0.888, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = 0,252* WEEK - 4,747

Unringed adult: Linear regression (n = 1760, R2= 0.833, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = 0,442* WEEK - 11,90

Primary Moult Scores in ringed (near)adult LBBG at Zeebrugge Voorhaven, Belgium in May. Date: 03, 29 & 30 May 2003.
code ring RPS date code ring RPS date
L-???69 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BLAD BLUE 10 29-mei-03
L-?0919 BLB 10 03-mei-03 BLAD BLUE 10 30-mei-03
L-?8648 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BLAH BLUE 10 03-mei-03
L-39830 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BLAR BLUE 10 30-mei-03
L-48364 BLB 10 29-mei-03 BMAA BLUE 10 29-mei-03
L-62174 BLB 10 03-mei-03 BMAF BLUE 10 30-mei-03
L-62174 BLB 8 30-mei-03 BMAZ BLUE 10 03-mei-03
L-65126 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BMAZ BLUE 10 29-mei-03
L-809?? BLB 10 29-mei-03 BMAZ BLUE 10 30-mei-03
L-80919 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BNAC BLUE nn 03-mei-03
L-82??? BLB 10 03-mei-03 BNAH BLUE 10 03-mei-03
L-82711 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BNAH BLUE 10 30-mei-03
L-83405 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BNAR BLUE 10 03-mei-03
L-877?? BLB 10 30-mei-03 BNAR BLUE 10 29-mei-03
L-89082 BLB 10 03-mei-03 BPAL BLUE 10 03-mei-03
L-89427 BLB 10 29-mei-03 BTAC BLUE 10 30-mei-03
L-89465 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BTAF BLUE 10 30-mei-03
L-89730 BLB 10 03-mei-03 BTAX BLUE nn 03-mei-03
L-92064 BLB 10 29-mei-03 BUAH BLUE 10 03-mei-03
L-92066 BLB 10 29-mei-03 BUAJ BLUE 10 03-mei-03
L-9281? BLB 10 30-mei-03 BUAL BLUE 10 03-mei-03
L-92821 BLB 10 29-mei-03 BUAL BLUE 10 29-mei-03
L-92873 BLB 10 03-mei-03 BUAL BLUE 10 30-mei-03
L-92876 BLB 10 03-mei-03 BUAM BLUE 10 30-mei-03
L-92878 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BVAM BLUE nn 03-mei-03
L-95841 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BVAN BLUE 10 29-mei-03
L-95851 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BVAP BLUE 10 03-mei-03
L-96064 BLB 10 30-mei-03 BWAD BLUE 10 03-mei-03
ABAJ BLUE 10 03-mei-03 BWAD BLUE 10 29-mei-03
ABAR BLUE 10 03-mei-03 BWAG BLUE nn 29-mei-03
ACAD BLUE 10 03-mei-03 BWAK BLUE 10 03-mei-03
ACAD BLUE 8 29-mei-03 BWAK BLUE 10 29-mei-03
ACAG BLUE 10 30-mei-03 BWAK BLUE 10 30-mei-03
ACAJ BLUE 10 29-mei-03 BWAY BLUE 10 03-mei-03
ACAJ BLUE 10 30-mei-03 xxAH BLUE nn 29-mei-03
ACAL BLUE 10 29-mei-03 GG49806 GBT 10 30-mei-03
ADAF BLUE 10 29-mei-03 AH6 GREEN 10 03-mei-03
ADAF BLUE 10 30-mei-03 AH6 GREEN 9 29-mei-03
ADAW BLUE nn 30-mei-03 E??? GREEN 10 30-mei-03
AFAF BLUE 10 29-mei-03 E475 GREEN 10 03-mei-03
AFAP BLUE 10 03-mei-03 E840 GREEN nn 03-mei-03
AFAS BLUE nn 03-mei-03 EK96 GREEN 10 03-mei-03
AFAS BLUE nn 29-mei-03 EK96 GREEN 10 29-mei-03
AGAB BLUE 10 03-mei-03 EK96 GREEN 10 30-mei-03
AGAB BLUE 10 29-mei-03 EL07 GREEN 10 30-mei-03
AGAH BLUE 10 03-mei-03 EM35 GREEN 10 30-mei-03
AHAL BLUE 10 03-mei-03 NU4 GREEN 10 03-mei-03
AHAP BLUE 10 29-mei-03 NU4 GREEN 10 30-mei-03
AHAS BLUE 10 29-mei-03 NV5 GREEN 10 03-mei-03
AHAW BLUE 10 29-mei-03 NV5 GREEN 10 29-mei-03
AHAZ BLUE 10 30-mei-03 TJ5 GREEN 10 03-mei-03
AJAJ BLUE 10 29-mei-03 5.???.??? NLA 10 30-mei-03
AJAY BLUE 9 30-mei-03 5.330.647 NLA 10 03-mei-03
AMAK BLUE 10 29-mei-03 5.360.136 NLA 10 03-mei-03
AMAK BLUE 10 30-mei-03 E037 ORANGE 10 03-mei-03
ANAN BLUE 10 29-mei-03 E037 ORANGE 10 29-mei-03
ANAS BLUE 10 30-mei-03 E836 ORANGE 10 03-mei-03
ANAW BLUE nn 29-mei-03 E836 ORANGE nn 29-mei-03
APAH BLUE 10 03-mei-03 EK47 ORANGE 10 29-mei-03
AUAA BLUE 10 03-mei-03 ES29 ORANGE 9 30-mei-03
AWAU BLUE 10 03-mei-03 ES51 ORANGE 10 03-mei-03
AXAG BLUE 10 03-mei-03 ES98 ORANGE 10 03-mei-03
AZAK BLUE nn 30-mei-03 ET03 ORANGE 10 03-mei-03
BAAG BLUE 9 30-mei-03 ET85 ORANGE 10 30-mei-03
BBAF BLUE nn 03-mei-03 EX22 ORANGE 10 03-mei-03
BBAF BLUE 10 30-mei-03 EX22 ORANGE nn 29-mei-03
BCAD BLUE nn 29-mei-03 EX22 ORANGE 8 30-mei-03
BCAD BLUE 10 30-mei-03 E131 RED 10 03-mei-03
BDAD BLUE 10 03-mei-03 RV2 WHITE nn 03-mei-03
BDAD BLUE nn 29-mei-03 RV2 WHITE 10 29-mei-03
BHAW BLUE 9 30-mei-03 TC5 WHITE 10 30-mei-03
BJAA BLUE 10 29-mei-03 TP3 WHITE 10 03-mei-03
BKAN BLUE 10 30-mei-03 TP3 WHITE 9 29-mei-03
        TU7 WHITE 10 03-mei-03
Notes:
RPS: Remaining Primary Score: 10 means 10 old primaries, 9 means P1 shed, etc.
nn: not noted.
BLB: metal ring Bruxelles - Belgium.
BLUE: darvic ring blue - Belgium, ringing project Zeebrugge.
GREEN: darvic ring green - the Netherlands, ringing project Maasvlakte.
NLA: metal ring Arnhem - the Netherlands.
ORANGE: darvic ring orange - the Netherlands, ringing project Maasvlakte.
RED: darvic ring red - the Netherlands, ringing project Maasvlakte.
WHITE: darvic ring white - the Netherlands, ringing project Maasvlakte.

May 03 2003:
n: 58, (7x not noted, 51x primary score 10)
m: primary score 10.0 (all primaries present in 100% of birds)
SD: 0.00
May 29 2003:
n: 42, (8x not noted, 31x primary score 10, 2x score 9, 1x score 8)
m: primary score 9.9
SD: 0.41
May 30 2003:
n: 52, (3x not noted, 43 primary score 10, 4x score 9, 2x score 8)
m: primary score 9.8
SD: 0.47

Conclusions:
When primary score was not noted (nn), but recorded 10 at a later date, nn can be replaced for 10.

Primary Moult Scores in ringed (near)adult LBBG at Maasvlakte & Dintelhaven, the Netherlands in May. Date: 07, 17, 27 May & 02 June 2003.
code ring RPS date code ring RPS date
?-?8360 BLB 10 05-07-03 TS0 green 10 05-17-03
?-?9951 BLB 10 06-02-03 TS0 green 10 05-27-03
L-89??? BLB 10 05-07-03 TS1 green 10 05-07-03
L-93303 BLB 10 05-07-03 UA4 green 10 05-07-03
L-93303 BLB 10 05-17-03 UT8 green 10 05-17-03
FA8370? GBT 10 06-02-03 UT8 green 10 05-27-03
GG44883 GBT 10 05-07-03 EJ86 green 10 05-07-03
GG93433 GBT nn 06-02-03 JL7 green 10 05-07-03
GT75716 GBT 10 06-02-03 5.251.194 NLA 10 06-02-03
E129 green 10 05-27-03 5.257.218 NLA 10 06-02-03
E277 green 10 05-17-03 5.257.580 NLA 10 06-02-03
E392 green nn 06-02-03 5.321.306 NLA 10 05-27-03
E496 green 10 05-17-03 5.360.522 NLA 10 05-17-03
E610 green 10 05-07-03 5.360.522 NLA 10 05-27-03
E610 green 10 05-17-03 ?.???.199 NLA 10 05-07-03
E610 green 10 06-02-03 5.308.77? NLA 10 05-07-03
E623 green 10 05-07-03 5.360.??? NLA 10 05-17-03
E641 green 10 05-07-03 NY0 nn 10 05-17-03
E835 green 10 05-27-03 AM0 orange 10 06-02-03
E968 green 10 05-07-03 CT7 orange 10 06-02-03
E994 green 10 05-07-03 CU9 orange 9 05-07-03
EAK5 green 10 05-07-03 CU9 orange 8 05-27-03
EAS1 green 10 05-07-03 CU9 orange 8 06-02-03
EAS1 green 10 05-17-03 E017 orange nn 06-02-03
EAS1 green 9 06-02-03 E053 orange nn 05-07-03
ECC0 green 10 05-17-03 E053 orange 10 06-02-03
ECC3 green nn 06-02-03 E202 orange 10 05-17-03
EE02 green 10 05-07-03 E264 orange 10 05-17-03
EE44 green 10 05-27-03 E400 orange nn 05-07-03
EH89 green 10 05-07-03 E600 orange 8 06-02-03
EJ1 green 10 06-02-03 E702 orange 10 05-17-03
EJ15 green 10 05-07-03 E818 orange 10 05-17-03
EJ97 green 10 05-07-03 E835 orange 10 05-17-03
EJ97 green 10 05-17-03 E835 orange 9 05-27-03
EL4 green 9 06-02-03 EC40 orange 10 05-17-03
EN40 green 10 05-17-03 EC40 orange 10 06-02-03
EN84 green 10 05-17-03 EC57 orange 10 06-02-03
EP79 green 10 05-17-03 ECC1 orange 10 05-07-03
ES98 green 10 05-17-03 EH42 orange 10 05-07-03
ES98 green 10 06-02-03 EH52 orange 10 05-17-03
ET17 green 9 05-17-03 EH79 orange nn 05-07-03
ET79 green 10 05-07-03 EH79 orange 10 06-02-03
EV39 green 10 05-17-03 EK85 orange 10 05-07-03
EV39 green 9 06-02-03 EK85 orange 10 06-02-03
EV60 green 10 05-07-03 EL83 orange 10 05-07-03
EY16 green 10 05-07-03 EL83 orange 10 05-07-03
EY17 green 10 05-17-03 EL83 orange 10 05-27-03
EY23 green 10 05-17-03 EM30 orange 10 06-02-03
JH5 green 10 05-07-03 EM41 orange 10 05-17-03
JH5 green 10 05-17-03 EM86 orange 10 06-02-03
JH5 green 10 06-02-03 EN24 orange 10 05-17-03
JL7 green 10 05-07-03 EN54 orange 10 05-27-03
JL7 green 10 05-17-03 EN84 orange 10 06-02-03
KJ0 green 10 05-07-03 EP23 orange 9 06-02-03
KM79? green 9 06-02-03 EP94 orange 10 06-02-03
KV4 green 10 05-07-03 ES43 orange 10 05-17-03
ML9 green 10 05-07-03 EU77 orange nn 06-02-03
NH0 green 10 05-17-03 EU95 orange 10 06-02-03
NV4 green 10 05-07-03 EV62 orange 10 05-17-03
NV7 green 10 05-07-03 EY77 orange 10 05-07-03
PL9 green 10 05-07-03 KE8 orange 10 05-07-03
PL9 green 10 05-17-03 KJ0 orange 10 06-02-03
PP0 green 9 06-02-03 ML2 orange 10 05-27-03
PP4 green 10 05-07-03 UL0 orange 10 06-02-03
PP4 green 10 05-07-03 NP8 orange (wh) 10 05-07-03
PP4 green 10 06-02-03 NP8 orange (wh) 10 06-02-03
PR4 green 10 05-07-03 PS6 orange (wh) 10 05-27-03
PR4 green 10 05-17-03 E319 red 10 05-17-03
PS0 green 10 06-02-03 E349 red 10 05-27-03
PV2 green 10 05-17-03 3 LINES white 10 05-07-03
RC3 green 10 05-07-03 R18 white 10 05-07-03
RL9 green 10 05-07-03 RR5 white 10 05-17-03
RV0 green 10 05-17-03 SH2 white 10 05-07-03
SH2 green nn 05-17-03 SS3 white 10 05-07-03
TH1 green 10 05-17-03 TN4 white 10 05-07-03
TH5 green 10 05-17-03 7 S white red 10 05-07-03
        7 S white red 10 05-07-03
Notes:
RPS: Remaining Primary Score: 10 means 10 old primaries, 9 means P1 shed, etc.
nn: not noted.
BLB: metal ring Bruxelles - Belgium.
GBT: metal ring BTO - Britain.
GREEN: darvic ring green - the Netherlands, ringing project Maasvlakte.
NLA: metal ring Arnhem - the Netherlands.
ORANGE: darvic ring orange - the Netherlands, ringing project Maasvlakte.
RED: darvic ring red - the Netherlands, ringing project Maasvlakte.
WHITE: darvic ring white - the Netherlands, ringing project Maasvlakte.

May 05 2003:
n: 56, (3x not noted, 52x primary score 10, 3x score 9)
m: primary score 10.0
SD: 0.14
May 17 2003:
n: 43, (1x not noted, 41x primary score 10, 1x score 9)
m: primary score 10.0
SD: 0.15
May 27 2003:
n: 14, (3x not noted, 12 primary score 10, 1x score 9, 1x score 8)
m: primary score 9.8
SD: 0.58
June 02 2003:
n: 35, (5x not noted, 27 primary score 10, 6x score 9, 2x score 8)
m: primary score 9.7
SD: 0.57

Conclusions:
When primary score was not noted (nn), but recorded 10 at a later date, nn can be replaced for 10.

 

LBBG from England: graellsii
Lesser Black-backed Gull 6cy, 9cy, 10cy RXB May 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage. Also as 5CY & 10CY.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 19cy & 21cy BTO GG49760 April-May 2012 & April 2014, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the U.K. (77394 bytes)LBBG adult BTO GG-63075, May 31 2002, EMO, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A female begging for food at a male and still without a nest.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the U.K. (82288 bytes)LBBG adult BTO GG-81065, May 03 2004, EMO, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A female with a nest.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the U.K. (89370 bytes)LBBG adult BTO G?-09708, May 03 2004, EMO, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A female with a nest.
LBBG from France: graellsii
Lesser Black-backed Gull 5cy 029A April, May & July 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 6cy 255K May-June 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 8cy 399N April, May & June 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 7cy FRP EA670077 / 404N May 04 2012, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 7cy FRP EA672138 / 409N May 04 2012, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 7cy FRP EA672341 / 440N April 27 & May 11 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 5cy 452N May 19 2011, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull adult 689N May 11 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 5CY 918N March & May 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull adult FRP EA677791 April, May & June 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
LBBG from Belgium: graellsii
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (79079 bytes)LBBG 5cy ACAJ May 29 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as pullus.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (79105 bytes)LBBG 6cy ACAL May 29 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as 2cy.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (71477 bytes)LBBG 5cy ADAF May 29 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as pullus.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (74850 bytes)LBBG 6cy AFAF May 29 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as 2cy.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (92730 bytes)LBBG 5cy AFAS May 03 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as pullus.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (92730 bytes)LBBG 8cy AGAB May 03 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as 4cy.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (77469 bytes)LBBG 5cy AHAS May 29 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as pullus.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (92730 bytes)LBBG 7cy AHAW & E840 May 03 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as 3cy.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (77011 bytes)LBBG 5cy AMAK May 29 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as pullus.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (92730 bytes)LBBG 6cy BDAD May 03 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as 2cy.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (77541 bytes)LBBG 6cy BJAA May 29 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as 2cy.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (69228 bytes)LBBG 7cy BLAD May 29 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as 3cy.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (76507 bytes)LBBG 7cy BMAA May 29 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as 3cy.
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (84300 bytes)LBBG 7cy BMAZ May 29 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as 3cy.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (92730 bytes)LBBG 7+cy BWAD May 03 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at Zeebrugge as adult.
LBBG 5cy-6cy HKAB 2012-2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
LBBG 6cy KJAM May, June & July 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
LBBG 7cy KJAP May 04 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
LBBG 5cy LRAU April & May 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (67406 bytes)LBBG 7cy L-62174, May 03 & 30 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N 04.02E).
sub-adult graellsii in May, ringed in Belgium. (79156 bytes)LBBG 5cy L-89427, May 29 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.59N,04.02E). No mirror on P10.
LBBG 10-11CY BLB L106388 April 2012 & May 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
LBBG adult BLB L906131 April-May 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
LBBG 6cy-9cy BLB L906179 2010-2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
LBBG from the Netherlands: Dutch intergrade graellsii
Lesser Black-backed Gull 6cy-9cy OV 2010-2014, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (83502 bytes)LBBG 5cy D0 May 05 2011, IJmuiden, the Netherlands.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (83502 bytes)LBBG ad YAAS May 06 2011, IJmuiden, the Netherlands.
probable adult hybrid michahellis x argenteus in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (74607 bytes)LBBG 12cy AH6, May 03 2003, Voorhaven, Zeebrugge, Belgium (51.21N,03.11E). Ringed June 20 1992, now paired BWAD.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (58305 bytes)LBBG 10cy JL7, May 31 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed June 21 1993.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (56435 bytes)LBBG 10cy LC9, May 13 2002, Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed June 28 1993.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (76575 bytes)LBBG 10cy LU3, May 13 2002, Hartelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed June 28 1993. An example of a bird which moved to another colony (5 km's).
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (52536 bytes)LBBG 6cy SE4, May 13 2002, EMO, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed July 03 1997. Note the recently moulted feathers in the inner greater, inner median and central median coverts. 
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (52536 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull SY6 17CY, May 19 2013, Katwijk, the Netherlands.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (65392 bytes)LBBG adult TS0, May 27 2003, Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E).
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (69808 bytes)LBBG 11cy UT8, May 27 2003, Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed UT8 left green June 21 1993.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (86466 bytes)LBBG 9cy E129, May 27 2003, Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed E129 left green June 26 1995.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (59133 bytes)LBBG 9cy E835, May 27 2003, EMO - Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed E835 left green July 05 1995.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (76950 bytes)LBBG 10cy EE44, May 27 2003, EMO - Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed EE44 left green July 07 1994.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. LBBG 6cy EU06, May 12 2001, Missouriweg Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Ringed EU06 right green at Maasvlakte June 28 1996, now in it's 5th summer.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (77885 bytes)LBBG 6cy EY17, May 13 2002, Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed June 24 1997.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (84671 bytes)LBBG 6cy EY84, May 13 2002, Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed June 24 1997. Probably a male. As with EY17 green, those birds return to the almost exact spot of ringing.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. LBBG 11cy AH1, May 12 2001 & May 23 2002, Missouriweg Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Ringed AH1 right orange June 23 1992.
adult michahellis in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (72689 bytes)YLG (L. michahellis michahellis) 13+cy CU9 & adult LBBG, Missouriweg - Maasvlakte, the Netherlands, May 12 2002 (51.59N,04.02E). One of the few mixed pairs at Maasvlakte.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (66987 bytes)LBBG 'Dutch intergrade' KT1 in 10cy, May 23 2002, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Ringed July 07 1993.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. LBBG 'Dutch intergrade' KY8 in 10cy, May 18-30 2000, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Born in 1991.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (68613 bytes) LBBG 'Dutch intergrade' ML2 in 10cy, May 23 2002 & May 27 2003, EMO - Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Ringed July 08 1993.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (105237 bytes)LBBG adult SP0, May 13 2002, Hartelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). 
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (96404 bytes)LBBG female E001 May 23 2002, Maasvlakte (EMO) the Netherlands. Ringed as adult on the nest June 1995.
adult michahellis in May, ringed in the Netherlands. LBBG & michahellis E051 May 30 2000, Maasvlakte (Naaktstrand) the Netherlands. Ringed as adult on the nest July 1995.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (50387 bytes)LBBG 8cy E052, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed June 01 1995.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (76496 bytes)LBBG 8cy E053, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed June 01 1995. From the same nest as E052.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (69265 bytes)LBBG 8cy E400, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed on July 08 1995 near the current breeding spot.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (77207 bytes)LBBG 8cy E563, May 13 2002, Hartelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed July 08 1995.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (79202 bytes)LBBG 10cy E618, May 03 2004, EMO Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed July 09 1995.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (70687 bytes)LBBG 9cy E835, May 27 2003, Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed E835 left orange at Maasvlakte July 09 1995.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. LBBG 7cy E914, May 12 2001, Missouriweg Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Ringed E914 left orange at Maasvlakte July 10 1995.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (63968 bytes)LBBG 8cy E955, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed July 10 1995.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (61386 bytes)LBBG 7cy EA10, May 23 2002, EMO, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed as pullus July 08 1996.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (72707 bytes)LBBG adult EC07, May 13 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ring data will be added when available.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (75111 bytes)LBBG adult EC40, May 13 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ring data will be added when available.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (61201 bytes)LBBG female 8cy EH79, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed July 10 1995.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (77993 bytes)LBBG 7cy EJ17, May 13 2002, Hartelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at ECT, July 08 1996 near the current breeding spot.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (63030 bytes)LBBG 7cy EK85, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed July 09 1996.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (81471 bytes)LBBG 9cy EK89, May 03 2004, EMO Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N 04.02E). A bird ringed July 09 1996.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (88168 bytes)LBBG 7cy EL22, May 31 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed July 09 1996.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (75887 bytes)LBBG 7cy EL83, May 31 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed July 09 1996.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (75587 bytes)LBBG 7cy EM86, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed July 10 1996.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (66195 bytes)LBBG 7cy EN11, May 31 2002, EMO, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed July 10 1996.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (77938 bytes)LBBG 7cy EP00, May 13 2002, Hartelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at ECT, July 13 1996 near the current breeding spot.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (89390 bytes)LBBG 7cy ET37, May 13 2002, Hartelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at ECT, July 13 1996 near the current breeding spot.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (88284 bytes)LBBG 9cy ET48, May 24 2004, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed July 08 1996.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (45139 bytes)LBBG 6cy EU95, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed July 02 1997.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (56271 bytes)LBBG 6cy EX13, May 23 2002, EMO, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed July 03 1997.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (72400 bytes)LBBG 6cy EAR0, May 13 2002, Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed July 04 1997, on the ECT emplacement, but now breeding in the Dintelhaven colony. It's often the females which disperse over other colonies, with about 75% of the males returning to the original colony (as Herring Gull research indicated).
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. LBBG 7cy EAY0, female, May 12 2001, Dintelhaven Maasvlakte, the Netherlands.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (97116 bytes)LBBG 8cy ECL4, May 03 2004, EMO Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed July 03 1997.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (71032 bytes)LBBG female NT0 6cy, May 13 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed July 11 1997. Note the rather parallel bill. The primary tips are relatively small, though fresh.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (67765 bytes)LBBG adult male PN5, May 13 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Probably ringed July 11 1997.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (69493 bytes)LBBG male 12cy R60, May 13 2002, EMO, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed at the Maasvlakte as pullus, July 06 1991 near the current breeding spot.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (79250 bytes)LBBG female 12cy V90, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). A bird ringed July 08 1991. Nest contains three eggs.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (74841 bytes)LBBG adult J7, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). 
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (65753 bytes)LBBG adult 17, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). 
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (87040 bytes)LBBG 6cy E019 May 24 2004, Missouriweg Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N 04.02E).
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (88722 bytes)LBBG 6cy E022 May 24 2004, Missouriweg Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N 04.02E).
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (72722 bytes)LBBG 6cy E136 May 03 2004, EMO Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N 04.02E).
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (72722 bytes)LBBG 6cy E800 May 2009, Moerdijk, the Netherlands.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (68807 bytes)LBBG adult NLA 5.285.764, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An old Dutch aluminum ring, probably ringed 1992.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (71631 bytes)LBBG adult (15cy) male NLA 5.248.912, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An old Dutch aluminum ring, ringed 1988.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (73064 bytes)LBBG adult (14cy) female NLA 5.257.580, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An old Dutch aluminum ring, hardly readable. Ringed July 09 1989, ECT-Maasvlakte as pullus.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (69556 bytes)LBBG adult (14cy) female NLA 5.257.218, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An old Dutch aluminum ring, hardly readable. Again ringed July 09 1989, ECT-Maasvlakte as pullus.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (75234 bytes)LBBG adult female NLA 5.181.236, May 12 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An old Dutch aluminum ring: Ringstation Arnhem. Ringed June 27 1984, B.P. terminals, Rozenburg as pullus, a distance of 5 km from the current location.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (69426 bytes)LBBG adult (13cy) male NLA 5.222.908, May 13 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An old Dutch aluminum ring: Ringstation Arnhem. Ringed July 19 1990, ECT-Maasvlakte as pullus.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (59612 bytes)LBBG adult NLA 5.321.306, May 27 2003, Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E).
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (74283 bytes)LBBG female 6cy NLA 5.330.587, May 13 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An new Dutch aluminum ring: Ringstation Arnhem. Ringed June 24 1997, IJmuiden as pullus.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (83502 bytes)LBBG female adult NLA 5.332.974, May 03 2004, EMO Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N 04.02E).
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (83502 bytes)LBBG 5cy NLA 5.404.820 May 05 2011, IJmuiden, the Netherlands.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (83502 bytes)LBBG 5cy NLA 5.416.820 May 05 2011, IJmuiden, the Netherlands.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in Spain. (80973 bytes)LBBG adult Madrid 6003175, May 13 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N 04.02E). An new Spanish aluminum ring: Minist. Agricultura Icona Madrid.