Lesser Black-backed Gull- Kleine Mantelmeeuw (graellsii & intermedius)

(last update: 17-4-2014)

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lbbg 3cy Jan-April
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lbbg 3cy Nov - Dec

lbbg sub-ad Jan-April
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lbbg sub-ad Nov - Dec

lbbg ad January
lbbg adult February
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lbbg adult May
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adult Lesser Black-backed Gull: March

Colony at "quai de la loire" at Calais, NW France. This is a mixed colony of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls, with Lesser Black-backeds dominating. Theer are now about 200 pairs breeding. Picture from April 14 2014 (Jean-Michel Sauvage).

LBBG graellsii in spring: open wings.

Pictures of several birds March 17-24 2015 at leiden, the Netherlands. These will probably breed in this area, sometimes called "Dutch intergrades" or "continental graellsii", and birds are a shade arker grey on upperparts than British graellsii, matching many intermedius from Denmark or S Norway.

Lesser Black-backed Gull EV adult, March 24 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands. Lesser Black-backed Gull N03J adult, March 24 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
   

LBBG returning to the colonies in the Netherlands

LBBG colony at Maasvlakte - Rotterdam (the Netherlands).End of March; many adult LBBG of the Maasvlakte (see map) already return to the breeding grounds and try to find nesting locations in the colonies. Successful adults are very faithful to nesting locations and partners and can be found breeding on exactly the same spot (inch-perfect!) year after year. Adult males, returning early in the colony normally wait for the same partner, establishing dominance over a last-year's successful territory. If the female arrives later in the season, other female try to mate with such dominant males, but once his partner arrives, the bond will soon be established and those (often young) females are kicked out the territory. 
By the end of March, 1.000s of LBBG (probably mostly originating from intermedius populations in Scandinavia) migrate east-northeast along the coast-line of the Netherlands and make short stop-overs at the beach. Well over 90% of the birds are adults and trains of birds glide motionless over the beaches of the Wadden Isles into the Danish Wadden Sea.

ad LBBG in Januari-April.LBBG, April 16 2001, Nachtegalenkeet Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. An image showing the difference in grey tones between two adult LBBG, breeding in the Netherlands.

At the Maasvlakte, most major position are taken again in the colony by another type of LBBG: Dutch intergrades. The are slightly darker than typical graellsii from Britain, but not as dark as the average intermedius from Scandinavia. They carry the genetic heritage of both taxa. The exchange of gene pools hasn't stopped yet. Still, in the colonies at Maasvlakte we see foreign ringed birds, breeding together with local Dutch birds. Not surprising, these foreign birds often seem to be females.
In the mean time birds born in colonies at Maasvlakte spread to other colonies abroad as well. The very prosperous colony at the Belgium port of Zeebrugge was initiated by both British and Dutch LBBG, as several colour-ringed birds proved.

Primary Moult Scores in adult LBBG:

Year 2003 we did some preliminary research on primary moult scores in adult LBBG. In total, we scored about 1400 birds from early April to mid October. This research will be used to do some more fundamental research in tear 2003-2004. First results for April are quite simple: we scored 49 birds on April 05 and we scored 45 birds on April 19. All these birds had P1 still present, hence PMS = 0. Nevertheless we did see several adult LBBG in the colony, which had P1 shed by April 19. Some notes: the scorse on April 05 2003 were done at Naaktstrand, on preening, bathing and arriving birds, through 20x-60x telescopes. Active moult would be noticed, but to detect arrested moult in such circumstances is pretty difficult. Next year, we try to start our surveys with catching birds and examine the exact primary stage in the inner primaries by taking photographs.

Tables & Graph

Table below: data for the Netherlands (2000-2010), results for April (aggregated week): number of remaining old primaries in adults.
REM10 = 10 primaries still old (hence, complete moult not started yet). First signs of complete moult commencement in WEEK 18 (starting 30 April).

starting date:   26 Feb   02 Apr 16 Apr 23 Apr 30 Apr   07 May
week no: 9 14 16 17 18 19
REM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 5 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 6 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 7 0 0 0 0 0 0
REM 8 0 0 0 0 15 11
REM 9 0 0 0 0 40 34
REM 10 2 49 45 1 466 216
           
n = 2 49 45 1 521 261
average P = 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.9 9.8
95% CID = 0.00 0.00 0.00 - 0.04 0.06
inverse = 12.71 2.01 2.02 - 1.96 1.97
Variantie (s2) = 0.00 0.00 0.00 - 0.17 0.25
SD (s) = 0.00 0.00 0.00 - 0.42 0.50
SE (sx) = 0.00 0.00 0.00 - 0.02 0.03
             
% class:            
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 0 0 0 0 3 4
9 0 0 0 0 8 13
10 100 100 100 100 89 83
             
  % control: 100 100 100 100 100 100

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Above: Scatter Plot for PMS in adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Number of remaining old primaries throughout the year (arrested moult excluded). Sample size is 6.171 birds.

Above: Scatter Plot for PMS in adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Number of remaining old primaries for April (arrested moult excluded). Sample size for this graph is 879 ringed birds.

starting date:

30 Apr

07 May

week no:

18

19

NEW 0

457

205

NEW P1

10

3

NEW P2

3

1

NEW P3

0

0

NEW P4

0

0

NEW P5

0

0

NEW P6

0

0

NEW P7

0

0

NEW P8

 

0

NEW P9

 

 

NEW P10

 

 

 

 

 

n =

470

209

average NEW P =

0.0

0.0

95% CID =

0.02

0.02

inverse  =

1.97

1.97

Variantie (s2) =

0.05

0.03

SD (s) =

0.21

0.18

SE (sx) =

0.01

0.01

 

 

 

% class

 

 

0

97

98

1

2

1

2

1

0

3

0

0

4

0

0

5

0

0

6

0

0

7

0

0

8

0

0

9

0

0

10

0

0

 

 

 

% control:

100

100

Table above, data for the Netherlands (2000-2010), results for April (aggregated week): number of new, fully grown primaries in adults.
NEW0 = no new primaries visible (arrested moult excluded in this analysis). So either P1 still old, or P1 dropped, but the very tip still not visible.
NEW1 = P1 longest new primary. Range between "at least the tip of P1 is visible" until "tip of P2 still shorter than P1".
NEW2 = P2 longest new primary. NEW3 = etc.

Above: Scatter Plot for PMS in adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Longest new primary is classified "fully grown". Sample size is 2.969 birds. Birds scored on NEW primaries (arrested moult excluded).

The last scoring days were in November, with a larger sample (133 adults) on 04 November 2010. From that date we have the last birds with retaining old primaries (13 birds with 1, 2 or even 3 old primaries; 120 birds with no old primaries left). From other days in November, only 10 birds were scored (all ringed adults). They all had no old primaries left.

The first tine a new primary (P1) was visible, was on 08 May 2006. Prior to this date, birds were scored missing inner primaries, but the very tip was still not visible (and therefore not scored). As soon as the tip of P1 was visible, this was automatically scored "fully grown" For the other primaries to be scored fully grown, they had to exceed the previous primary in length (so P2 fully grown, only from when it is longer than P1).

Peter Stewart presents onset of primary moult by scores for caught adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls in the Severn Estuary, U.K., repeated in the table below. To read his results, see this PDF file.  

Table: the number of old remaining primaries present. Compare PMS of adult graellsii at half monthly intervals. Data from the Severn Estuary Gull Group by Peter Stewart: The primary moult of the Lesser Black-backed Gull (special publication No 1).

 

Netherlands

Severn Estuary U.K.

 

PMS range

N:

Average PMS

PMS range

N:

Average PMS

1-15 apr

10

49

10

8-10

216

9,9

16-30 apr

10

47

10

10

197

10,0

1-15 may

8-10

849

9,8

8-10

167

9,9

16-31 may

7-10

380

9,7

7-10

76

9,5

1-15 jun

8-10

104

9,6

7-10

33

8,6

16-30 jun
7-10 253 9,7 6-10 65 8,2
1-15 jul
6-10 605 9,2 5-10 176 7,4

LINEAR REGRESSION

Onset of primary moult can best be illustrated by a sinusoid for the first few weeks and last weeks, but there appears to be linear dependency over much of the central moult period.

The earliest date for birds with missing primaries is 30 April 2006, which is not the earliest day in our complete sample. We scored 98 Lesser Black-backed Gulls prior to that date, some already in February. As can be expected, none of these was in primary moult, and this group was excluded in our further analysis as it will only result in a misfit for the onset of moult, using linear regression statistics.

LINEAR REGRESSION FOR OLD REMAINING PRIMARIES

Complete sample: Linear regression (n = 6171, R2= 0.820, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = -0,381* WEEK + 17,967

Ringed adults: Linear regression (n = 2069, R2= 0.800, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = -0,325* WEEK + 16,270

Unringed adult: Linear regression (n = 4102, R2= 0.779, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = -0,513* WEEK + 23,031

LINEAR REGRESSION FOR NEW FULLY GROWN PRIMARIES

Complete sample: Linear regression (n = 2969, R2= 0.930, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = 0,302* WEEK - 5,933

Ringed adults: Linear regression (n = 1209, R2= 0.888, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = 0,252* WEEK - 4,747

Unringed adult: Linear regression (n = 1760, R2= 0.833, sign: P<0,000)
PMS = 0,442* WEEK - 11,906

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Adult intermedius from Norway
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LBBG JK3S March 14 2010, Madrid, Spain. Photo by Delfín González.
Lesser Black-backed Gull intermedius JLK7 10CY, March 10 2017, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
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Adult intermedius from Denmark
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Lesser Black-backed Gull intermedius V.104 9CY, March & November - December 2016, Matosinhos beach, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
Lesser Black-backed Gull intermedius V.C6K 7CY, March & November - December 2016, Matosinhos beach, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
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Adult graellsii from the Germany
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Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii H.059 10CY, March 06 2016, Matosinhos beach, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
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Adult graellsii from Iceland
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Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii YJ56 adult, March 11 2016, Matosinhos Beach, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
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Adult graellsii from the UK
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Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii T:87J adult, October 2016 - March 2017, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii 2CK7 5CY, March 12 2016, Aguda beach, V.N.Gaia, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
Black-backed Gull graellsii 4AX5 adult, March, October - December 2015, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii 5FA2 4CY-5CY, October 2016 - March 2017, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii 6AN1 5CY, March & September - October 2016, Matosinhos beach, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii 7AK6 7CY-8CY, March 2016 & February 2017, Aguda beach, V.N.Gaia, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
adult LBBG Dutch intergrade in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (85708 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii FLV 15CY-18CY, March 25 2012 & April 07 2015, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve & Maarten van Kleinwee.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the U.K. (72074 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii 6SF 5CY & 7CY, March & October 2015, February 2017, Matosinhos beach, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the U.K. (72074 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii M+N 5CY & 7CY, March 2015 - February 2017, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii JS adult, November 2016 & March 2017, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 19cy & 21cy BTO GG49760 2012 & 2014, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the U.K.LBBG BTO GH-... , Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E), March 30 2002. Now breeding in Holland.
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Adult graellsii from Spain
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ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the U.K. (72074 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii ZMAC 13CY-14CY, March 2015 & October 2016, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
Ringed as pullus .
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Adult graellsii from France
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Lesser Black-backed Gull 5,6,8cy 001N 2009, 2010 & 2012, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 2cy, 6cy-9cy 359N April 2011-2014, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 4cy-6cy 600N 2010-2012, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 4CY-5CY 870N 2012-2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 5-6CY 918N March - May 2013 & April 2014, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 5CY & 8CY 989N 2010 & 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull adult FRP EA676435 March 23 2014, Boulogne-sur-Mer, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
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Adult graellsii "Dutch intergrade" from Belgium
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Lesser Black-backed Gull 5cy HKAB 2012 & 2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 7-8cy KJAM April 23 2014, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage. Also in 2013.
Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii NHAH 4CY-6CY, July 2013, April 2014, March-May 2015, Calais, NW France & Portugal. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage & José Marques.
LBBG 6cy-9cy BLB L906179 2010-2013, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
LBBG BLB L906873 March 29 2013, Outreau, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
Lesser Black-backed Gull 6cy BLB L910624 March 27 2014, Boulogne-sur-Mer, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
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Adult graellsii "Dutch intergrade" from the Netherlands
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Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii 5.L 6CY, March 09 2017, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii Y.6 6CY, March 09 2017, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii B3 adult, March 26 & April 20 2015, Maasvlakte - Europoort, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii BF adult, March 30 2015, Maasvlakte - Europoort, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii BW adult, March 26 & June 08 2015, Maasvlakte - Europoort, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii BZ adult, March 30 & May 21 2015, Maasvlakte - Europoort, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii CN adult, March 30 2015, Maasvlakte - Europoort, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG B5 March 22 2008, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG HE March 24 2008, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG VP April 2006 & March 2008, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG TT March 02 2008, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG 12 March 01 2008, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG BH March 22 2008, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (73754 bytes)LBBG C4 March 09 2009,Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
adult LBBG Dutch intergrade in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (85708 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii JH adult, May 2005 & March 2014, Moerdijk & Sassenplaat, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve & Mars Muusse.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG JX March 26 2006, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
adult LBBG Dutch intergrade in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (85708 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii K6 adult, May 2005 & May 2014, Moerdijk & Sassenplaat, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve & Mars Muusse.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG KS March 01 2008, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
LBBG 6cy-10cy OV 2010-2014, Calais, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
adult LBBG Dutch intergrade in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (85708 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii 03 6CY, March 08 2013, Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
adult LBBG Dutch intergrade in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (85708 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii 7W 7CY-8CY, April 08 2014 & March 23 2015, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG AL March 02 2008, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG BA March 01-02 2008, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG G4 March 02 2008, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)LBBG J5 March 02 2008, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii RF adult, March & September 2016, Matosinhos beach, Matosinhos, Portugal. Picture: José Marques.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii AA adult, March 21 2015, Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii GS 9CY, March 23 2015, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii NL (was EAU7) 10CY & 18CY, May 2006 & March 2014, Moerdijk, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve & Mars Muusse.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii 0= adult, March 31 2014, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii 2= adult, March 23 2015, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii A+ 17CY-20CY, March 2012 & 2015, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve & Maarten van Kleinwee.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii M= adult, March & July 2015, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii R= adult, March & May 2015, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
juvenile LBBG in October, ringed in Norway. (131273 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii T= adult, March 31 2014, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (76807 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull KARC 6CY, February 06 & March 06 2016, Comenar Viejo, Madrid, Spain (40°15'41"N 003°38'00"W). Picture: Delfín Gonzalez.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (76807 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii KJAZ adult, March 18 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (76807 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull YBHR adult, March 06 2016, Comenar Viejo, Madrid, Spain (40°15'41"N  003°38'00"W). Picture: Delfín Gonzalez.
adult LBBG Dutch intergrade in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (85708 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii E B85 13CY, March 31 2014, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (76807 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii E A17 14CY, March 30 2015, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (76807 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii E B 11CY & 14CY, April 01 2012 & March 26 - April 10 2015, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve & Maarten van Kleinwee.
adult LBBG Dutch intergrade in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (85708 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii PB6T adult, March 28 & May 02 2014, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
adult LBBG Dutch intergrade in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (85708 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii WH4T adult, March 28 2014, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (76807 bytes)LBBG CH9 11cy, March 18 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An adult male ringed, left orange CH9, ringed as a pullus in July 1992. 

 

ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (77664 bytes)LBBG EM7 10cy, March 18 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An adult male ringed, left orange EM7.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (56285 bytes)LBBG E342 8cy, March 18 2002, Nachtegalenkeet, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An adult male ringed, left orange E342, July 8 1995. 

ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands.LBBG E600 8cy, Nachtegalenkeet, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E), March 30 2002. 

ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (67981 bytes)LBBG E920 8cy, March 18 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). 

ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands.LBBG EC40 7cy, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E), March 30 2002. An adult bird ringed left orange EC40. This is probably a male, as the dominant expression suggests. 

adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (83502 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii EE23 15CY & 21CY, March 2010 & April 2016, IJmuiden, the Netherlands. Picture: Mars Muusse & Jan Zorgdrager.
adult LBBG Dutch intergrade in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (85708 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii EM41 19CY-20CY, May 23 2014 & March 30 2015, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (65049 bytes)LBBG EN84 March 18 2002 & April 05 2003, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An adult ringed, left orange EN 84. Ringed July 13 1996.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (70384 bytes)LBBG EAY0 15cy, March 18 & April 22 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). The first of birds An adult ringed, left orange EAY0, originating from Britain, ringed in 1988. 
adult LBBG Dutch intergrade in September, ringed in the Netherlands. (85708 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii ECJ3 20CY, March 23 2015, Maasvlakte - Europoort, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.

ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. LBBG MU6 adult, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E), March 30 2002. An adult bird ringed left leg orange MU6.

ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (79709 bytes)LBBG NT0 6cy, March 18 2002, Missouriweg, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). An adult female ringed, left orange NT0 in white letters. 
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. LBBG LL1 2001 & 2002, ECT centrale Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). Ringed June 28th 1993. Probably a male.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (69998 bytes)LBBG NV4 2002 & 2004, Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N 04.02E). 
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. LBBG E398 8cy, March 30 2002, Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E). This bird was ringed June 28 1995 close to the current breeding spot.

ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. LBBG EV41 6cy Dintelhaven, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands (51.59N,04.02E), March 30 2002.

ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (83878 bytes)LBBG SL2 15cy, March 11 2012, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (74841 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii N06A adult, March 28 2014, Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Picture: Merijn Loeve.
adult intermedius lbbg in October, ringed in Norway. (94818 bytes)LBBG 15cy =1 March 19 & 31 2011, IJmuiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes)LBBG graellsii E301 E 14CY, March 30 2013, Voorhout, the Netherlands.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (83502 bytes)LBBG E734 11+cy, March 24 2010, IJmuiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes)LBBG B64 5cy, March 05 2006, Madrid, Spain. Picture: Delfín González.
adult graellsii in May, ringed in the Netherlands. (83502 bytes)Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii NLA 5.417.298 adult, May & June 2015 & March 2016, Boulogne-sur-Mer, NW France. Picture: Jean-Michel Sauvage.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull graellsii NLA 5.410.0xx 14CY, March 30 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.

UNRINGED FLYING ADULT PLUMAGE

ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 17 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 30 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 30 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands. Primary coverts may indicate younger adult (4CY-6CY).
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 30 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 30 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 24 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 30 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands. P1 new, contrasting with older P2 and adjacent inner primaries.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 17 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 30 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 17 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 17 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 17 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 17 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 24 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 17 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 17 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 24 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.
ad LBBG in Januari-April, ringed in the Netherlands. (60928 bytes) Lesser Black-backed Gull adult, March 17 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands.