Photo 7: LBBG sub-adult, June 17 2001, Missouriweg Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. 

The red spot extends on both mandibles and there is just a faint black marking on the upper mandible. The iris shows a hint of blue  and yellow, typical for immature birds. The scapulars and coverts are a mix of old bleached brown feathers and fresh grey ones.

In this sub-adult, a clear division is visible between p7 and p8. The inner primaries are strongly bleached, while on the outer primaries a small tip is still visible and there is a relatively small mirror on p10 (no mirror on p9). All the primaries have worn tips (and the outer ones as well). Probably the moult was arrested last winter; maybe to save energy for migration and restarted after arrival on the wintering grounds. Arrested autumn moult is rare in LBBGs from West-European population graellsii and intermedius, but eastern races seem to show this more often. Such a moult strategy is common in fuscus and to a lesser extend applies to heuglini, but maybe some Dutch LBBGs may follow the same strategy. Surveys in winter quarters may supply more information.