Amir Ben Dov (Israel)
Mars Muusse (Netherlands)
armenicus 2cy Jan
armenicus 3cy Jan
armenicus sub-ad Jan
armenicus adult Jan
Phenotypic characterization, taxonomic rank and phylogenetic relationships of Armenian Gull Larus armenicus
Dorit Liebers & Andreas J. Helbig
published: Limicola 13-6, 1999 (in German, with English summary)
Fig 22: Sonogram of armenicus long call identifying various elements and parameters measured for analysis.
Sound recordings were made in all colonies, using Sony portable MiniDisk (MZ-R3) with Sennheiser System K6 and microphone module ME-67. Sonogrammes were created using Avisoft 3.4d. Analyses were only made for the “long calls” (as in Goethe 1982), which is the dominant call in breeding places. Sound samples from Tuz Golu and Van Golu were compared to michahellis from Spain, the Camarque and breeding birds from the upper Rhine. There is no certainty if all analyzed calls apply to different birds, as recordings were made in large colonies. Sample sizes are 80 armenicus (Tuz Golu 44, Van Golu 36); 61 michahellis (Spain, Camarque, upper Rhine).
behaviour and composition of long call in armenicus
Long call display
The five differences between armenicus and michahellis long call (n = 141 call sequences):
1. Time of the first 8 short elements (and including the intervals in between): armenicus 1.7 sec; michahellis 2.1 sec (t-Test: p<0.001).
2. Highest frequency in first 'high note': armenicus 1.47 kHz; michahellis 1.31 kHz (t-Test: p<0.001).
3. Highest frequency in the first harmonic note of the miau-call: armenicus 1.32 kHz; michahellis 1.05 kHz (t-Test: p<0.001).
4. Intensity (stress) on the high note of the miau-call: 80% of michahellis put stress on the first high note, while armenicus spread the stress, with 20-40% of the birds stressing the first, second or third high note (t-Test: p<0.001).
5. Frequency distribution of miau-call (see Fig. 23), three classes are distinguished:
Summarizing, it can be stated that michahellis long call and armenicus long call are close, but measurable different from each other: armenicus has on average faster calls, with higher frequency (especially miau-calls) and it has miau-calls with more complex frequency sequences than we find in michahellis.